Understanding the Principles of Insurance

The seven Principles of insurance state the different groups that are insurable. They are classified both for the sake of organization, and so that insurance companies can decide which area of expertise they would like to specialize in as an organization.

The first of the Principles of insurance is dealing with a large amount of the same type of policy. This is commonly thought of in auto insurance. Over a hundred million drivers in the United States alone carry auto insurance, and they do so because the companies have discovered the way to balance the risk with the proper funds.

Five of the seven principles involve loss categories. Definite loss deals with loss that is a guarantee, such as life insurance. Accidental loss would be associated with renter’s or fire insurance. There is not a guarantee of theft or fire, so each individual case is evaluated before coverage is assigned. Large loss deals with coverages of items that are of great value to the buyer. Great care must be placed in these policies, as the amount of capital needed to replenish these losses may be great.

The fifth loss principle deals with limiting the amount of loss from a catastrophe, such as an act of God. Acts of God include floods, hurricanes, and many other meteorological events. The insurance company takes care to write into the policy that a total amount of capital can be distributed based on the number of policy holders affected. For instance, if a thousand people with the same coverage are hit by a tornado, the company can limit their risk through this principle.

The final principle is the affordable premium. A balance must be struck between the client and the company as to what is a sensible amount to pay for the term of the policy. This is crucial to the success of the company, and is assessed at the outlook of the policy.

These Principles of insurance are the foundation of a healthy insurance group. Using them is the key to offering smart insurance and making a sensible profit.

Principles of Insurance

Insurance is a cover used for protecting a person from the financial losses. Financial losses can take many forms. There are risks to our investments, liabilities for our actions, and risks to our ability to earn income.

The insurer and the insured are the main two parties involved in insurance. The insurer is the insurance company which will provide the cover to the insured against any financial losses. The insured may be an individual person or a group of people like an employer, members of a society, etc.

Basic categorization of Insurance

There are mainly two broad categories of insurance

  • Life insurance
  • Non-life insurance

Life insurance products include Life term policies, which give clean risk coverage of only the death benefit, whereas endowment or money back policies have a risk as well as savings component i.e. death as well as maturity benefit. The life insurance also includes Unit – Linked Policies in which there is a risk component and a savings component, which is invested in equity, debt or gilt funds, depending on the insurance company.

Non Life insurance products include property or casualty, health insurance or house, fire, marine insurance etc. This insurance category deals with all the non-life aspects of an insured like their house, health, land, office, etc which might bring financial loss.

There are few principles of insurance, such as:

  • Definite Loss – Insurance – The event that gives rise to the loss that is subject to insurance should, at least in principle, take place at a known time, in a known place, and from a known cause. The classic example is death of an insured on a life insurance policy.
  • Unintentional or Accidental Loss – Insurance – The event that comprises the trigger of a claim should be accidental, or at least outside the control of the beneficiary of the insurance The loss should be ‘pure,’ in the sense that it results from an event for which there is only the opportunity for cost.
  • Huge Loss – Insurance – The size of the loss must be meaningful from the perspective of the insured. Insurance premiums need to cover both the expected cost of losses, plus the cost of issuing and administering the policy, adjusting losses, and supplying the capital needed to rationally assure that the insurer will be able to pay claims.
  • Affordable Premium – Insurance – If the probability of an insured event is so high, or the cost of the event is so large, that the resulting premium is large relative to the amount of protection offered, it is not likely that anyone will buy insurance, even if on offer.
  • A large number of identical coverage units – Insurance – The vast majority of insurance policies are provided for individual members of very large classes. The existence of a large number of identical coverage units allows insurers to benefit from the so-called “law of large numbers,” which in effect states that as the number of coverage units increases, the actual results are increasingly likely to become close to expected results.
  • Measurable Loss – Insurance – There are two elements that must be at least estimatable, if not formally calculable: the probability of loss, and the attendant cost. Probability of loss is generally an empirical exercise, while cost has more to do with the ability of a reasonable person in possession of a copy of the insurance policy and a proof of loss associated with a claim presented under that policy to make a reasonably definite and objective evaluation of the amount of the loss recoverable as a result of the claim.
  • Limited risk of terribly large losses – Insurance – If the same event can cause losses to numerous policyholders of the same insurer, the ability of that insurer to issue policies becomes constrained, not by factors surrounding the individual characteristics of a given policyholder, but by the factors surrounding the sum of all policyholders so exposed.

Principles of Insurance

There are certain principles of insurance which could be followed

A large number of homogenous units: A large number of insurance policies are provided for individual members. Insurance given against a vehicle to millions or some other insurances the existence of a large number of people allows the insuring giving companies to benefit from “law of large numbers” which is described as a result that is performed by repeating the same experiment continuously. The law of large numbers has affected a large number of states which has increased a large number of exposure units. Whereas the actual results are increasing that are likely to become to the expected proportions.

Lloyd’s of London is famous for giving insurance for the health or life of the actors, underwriters, sports personality and many more. Larger commercial properties have certain polices that may insure exceptional properties which has no homogenous exposure units. Many homogenous exposure units are considered to be insurable.

Calculable Loss: This category consists of two elements one is known as attendant cost and the other is the probability of loss. Probability of loss is driven from experiment and observation of a person’s loss while the attendant cost has more to do with a person who holds his chattels and a copy of insurance policy and claims a property under the policy which retains an object or the amount of loss recoverable as a result of the claim.

Affordable Premium: Insurance will not be sold if it is too high, which results to a premium which is large compared to the amount that is offered against protection or the cost of the event is too high. Moreover the premium should not be so high that it would affect a loss to the insurer. If there are no chances of loss then the transaction would be in form of insurance.

Large Loss: This depends on the size of a loss. Insurance premiums have to cover both cost of issuing and the expected cost of losses and also adjusting the losses as well as the administrative policy. The insurance premiums supplies the capital that is needed by assure that is given by the insurer who will be able to pay the claims.

Accidental Loss: Insurance will be given to a person during an accident when the person proves it to be real. In this case if there is a loss in the in an ordinary business then the owner is not liable to be paid the insurance.

Definite Loss: In case of a sudden demise of a person, the members are liable to get the insurance. The other factors that meet these criteria are in case of an accident or workers who are injured at the work places. Similarly, if one has to claim insurance then he has to prove the insurance company about the loss n which the time, place and the loss of the person are taken under consideration. Whereas in case of an occupational disease a person cannot claim for insurance benefits, the reason behind this is occupational disease may involve prolong time, place or cause which is identifiable.